On 23rd of May last, the Ven. The largest suckers were two and a half inches [6.4 cm] in diameter; the whole creature nearly filled a large washtub. 160-Foot Giant Squid Hoax: How Big Do They Really Get? The 5-inch segment of fossilized jaw, which was discovered in Antarctica in the 1980s, dates from 40 million years ago. According to Roper & Boss (1982:97), the largest suckers of the tentacular clubs reach 5.2 cm (2.0 in) in diameter. Tusoteuthis (meaning "crushed squid") is an extinct genus of very large enchoteuthidid cephalopod that lived during the Cretaceous. Cephalopods vastly larger than either giant or colossal squids have been postulated at various times. It is recommended that arms and tentacles be measured in a relaxed state so as not to exaggerate their length, but historically this practice was not always followed and some of the more extreme published giant squid measurements have been attributed to artificial lengthening of the tentacles (O'Shea & Bolstad, 2008). O'Shea (2003a) put the maximum weight of female giant squid at 275 kg (606 lb), based on the examination of some 105 specimens as well as beaks recovered from sperm whales (which do not exceed the size of those found in the largest complete specimens). What amazes me is that the adult has never made the press (that I am aware of). Kraken Rocken: Reports of the possible spotting of a kraken near Antarctica actually show a very large rock. Only the extinct ichthyosaurs are known to have approached these dimensions (Motani et al., 1999; Humphries & Ruxton, 2002), with some species having eyes up to 35 cm (14 in) in diameter (Nilsson et al., 2012:687). The misprint was reproduced in the English translation published the following year and was later propagated in a number of papers on giant squid (Romanov et al., 2017). There is some debate in the scientific community as to the evolutionary reason behind the extremely large eyes of giant and colossal squids (Partridge, 2012). Norman et al. Most octopuses weigh less than 70 pounds [32 kg] with a stretched length of 15 feet [4.6 m] or less. By comparison, the largest known colossal squid beak from a sperm whale stomach measured 49 mm (1.9 in) in LRL (O'Shea & Bolstad, 2008). Life-sized models of the giant squid are a common sight in natural history museums around the world (Tratz, 1973; Ellis, 1997a, b), and preserved specimens are much sought after for display (Landman & Ellis, 1998; Ablett, 2012). I that afternoon proceeded to the spot and made a careful examination, took notes, measurements, and also obtained a sketch, which, although the terribly heavy rain and driving southerly wind rendered it impossible to do justice to the subject, will, I trust, convey to you some idea of the general outline of this most recently-arrived Devil-fish. "Our fossil discovery, with its estimate of a 5-to-6-meter wingspan -- nearly 20 feet -- shows that birds evolved to a truly gigantic size relatively quickly after the extinction of the dinosaurs and ruled over the oceans for millions of years," Kloess said in. Whatever the type of cephalopod, in the absence of whole specimens, size can often be estimated from only partial remains. However, its beak is not the largest known from this species; even bigger colossal squid beaks have been recovered from the stomachs of sperm whales, indicating that this species can grow larger still. The Giant Squid, Captured on Camera in its Natural Habitat for the First Time Ever! Weights about 4 lb / 2.5 kg. Given as the maximum size for the species, with no reference to a particular specimen. It would have weighed about 42½ tons [38.6 tonnes]." New York monument honors victims of giant octopus attack that never occurred, Humboldt Squid, Giant Squid, Giant Humboldt Squid, Calamar Gigante, Rojo Diablo (, Electrophysiology and Biophysics of the Squid Giant Axon, Some aspects of the systematics and biology of squid of the genus, All-time giants: the largest animals and their problems, A preliminary report on bioaccumulation in octopuses (, A note on the flying behavior of certain squids, Chasing Giants: On the Trail of the Giant Squid, The Carnian/Norian boundary succession at Berlin-Ichthyosaur State Park (Upper Triassic, central Nevada, USA), Koloss aus der Kreidezeit: Der größte Ammonit der Welt wurde vor 120 Jahren in Seppenrade entdeckt, How big is big and other mysteries about the glorious, blue-blooded giant squid, Dwarf cephalopods: conditions of reproduction at small size, A lower limit to adult size in coleoid cephalopods: elements of a discussion, Deep-Sea Cephalopods: An Introduction and Overview, Systematics of the Onychoteuthidae Gray, 1847 (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida), Ogre? The original paper gave the mass of this specimen as 61.4 kg (135 lb), but according to Roper & Jereb (2010h:266) this figure is wrong and stems from a typographical error, the correct mass being 161.4 kg (356 lb). Ignored – rediscovered – ignored again! It appears to be 100ft long and part giant squid. Though a substantial number of colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni) remains have been recorded (Xavier et al., 1999 collated 188 geographical positions for whole or partial specimens caught by commercial and scientific fisheries), very few adult or subadult animals have ever been documented, making it difficult to estimate the maximum size of the species. The length of body from tip of tail to anterior margin of the mantle was 9 feet 2 inches [2.79 m] and 7 feet 3 inches [2.21 m] in circumference; the head from anterior margin of mantle to roots of arms 1 foot 11 inches [58 cm], making the total length of the body 11 feet 1 inch [3.38 m]. The sculpture appeared on a Canadian postage stamp issued in 2011 (Hickey, 2010; [Anonymous], N.d.). The registry only covers the shells of nautiluses and Spirula and the eggcases of Argonauta. When ventral mantle length is meant instead of dorsal this is always specified as such and abbreviated VML (Roper & Voss, 1983:58). Kloess and other researchers determined that the foot bone dates back 50 million years, and the jaw bone is around 40 million years old -- evidence that the birds emerged in the Cenozoic Era, after an asteroid struck Earth and wiped out nearly all dinosaurs. Giant cephalopods have fascinated humankind since time immemorial. Squid giant axon diameters do not necessarily correlate with overall body size; those of the giant squid (Architeuthis dux) are only 0.137–0.21 mm (0.0054–0.0083 in) thick (Adelman & Gilbert, 1990:102). Maximum mantle length in males is around 40 cm. Official Records, Really Gigantic Squid? For total length, Paxton (2016a:83) considered three records as candidates for the "longest measured": the 19 m (62 ft) specimen of Berzin (1972:199), the 55 ft 2 in (16.81 m) specimen described by Kirk (1888) as Architeuthis longimanus—a strangely proportioned animal that has been much commented on[nb 9]—and the 55 ft (16.76 m) "Thimble Tickle specimen" reported by Verrill (1880a:191), which is often cited as the largest giant squid ever recorded. Among specimens recovered from sperm whales, the longest "definitely measured" SL is the 16 ft 3 in (4.95 m) reported by Clarke (1956:257) and the longest "visually estimated" SL is the c. 9 m (30 ft) attributed to a photograph of a sperm whale with giant squid remains in its jaws (see Hansford, 2009), though Paxton conceded that it is "[n]ot clear how much/what portion of body was eaten". In terms of mass, these are the largest known invertebrates that have ever lived (Grulke, 2014:124), though perhaps still second to the largest living cephalopods when considering tissue mass alone, since in shell-bearing species the vast majority of the living tissue is restricted to the body chamber, which occupies only a fraction of the internal shell volume (Vermeij, 2016). Evolutionary Trends of Triassic Ammonoids, Photos: rare giant squid found off the coast of Hawaii, Capture of a gigantic squid at Newfoundland. The axons of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) are exceptional in that they can reach a diameter of as much as 1.5 mm (0.059 in), and those of Loligo forbesii can also exceed 1 mm (Adelman & Gilbert, 1990:102). On measuring the distance with a cord, I found it to be sixteen feet [4.9 m], giving the creature a spread from tip to tip of the longest pair of arms, of not less than thirty-two feet [9.8 m]. 8 The diameter of the complete shell has been estimated at 2.55 m (8.4 ft), assuming the living chamber took up one-fourth of the outer whorl (Landois, 1895:100). Zoologist Addison Emery Verrill of Yale, at the time the country's foremost authority on cephalopods, was initially convinced that it represented a previously unknown species of gigantic octopus, and even proposed for it the scientific name Octopus giganteus (Verrill, 1897b, c). The large size of this species made it the focus of octopus wrestling championships, which reached the height of their popularity on the West Coast of the United States in the 1960s (see High, 1976:17; Norman, 2000:217; Roach, 2013). Only an arm and a tentacle were collected, but they were so large (the arm was 40 cm long [15.6 inches] and the tentacle 115 cm [44.8 inches]) that Nesis was able to estimate the mantle length at 265 to 275 cm (8.61 to 8.93 feet), and the total length at over 4 meters (more than 13 feet). The literature on cephalopod size has been further muddied by the frequent misattribution of various squid specimens to the giant squid genus Architeuthis, often based solely on their large size. The largest snail today is the giant African land snail, which can reach seven inches (18 cm) in length, and which has a shell diameter of three-and-a-half inches (9 cm). The related genera Argonauta and Ocythoe have similarly small males, but the females are not nearly as large as those of Tremoctopus, and the size dimorphism is therefore less pronounced. Ellis (1998a:106) characterised these estimates as "unfounded exaggerations". Why did some ichthyosaurs have such large eyes? (Paxton, 2016a:86). to Whale Sharks and Giant Squids: Big or Bu!!$hit? No. They added that a female giant squid with a mantle length of 71 in (180 cm) "measured post mortem and relaxed (by modern standards) today would have a total length of ≈32 feet [9.8 m]". Heteromorph ammonites are known to have exceeded 1 m (3.3 ft) in length also, but since their shells were uncoiled to varying degrees, they were overall much smaller than the largest non-heteromorphs. "The extreme, giant size of these extinct birds is unsurpassed in ocean habitats," added study co-author Ashley Poust of the San Diego Natural History Museum. Many essential elements of how all chemical synapses function were first discovered by studying the squid giant synapse (see Llinás, 1999). Once completely thawed the specimen was found to weigh 495 kg (1,091 lb), but to measure only 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in mantle length and 4.2 m (14 ft) in total length ([Anonymous], N.d.). Although due to its great size the specimen could not be retrieved in its entirety, the head and arm crown were saved. The heaviest known cephalopod, and the largest living invertebrate, is the colossal squid. More typically the mantle length is 2.0–6.0 cm. Mantle length has been estimated from video recordings of squid in the wild (Zeidberg, 2004:4195; Phillips, 2004:ii). Do larger cephalopods live longer? Video footage shot in 2005 in deep water off Japan shows T. danae emitting blinding flashes of light from these photophores as it attacks its prey (see Kubodera et al., 2006). 4 These include the claim of Dozier (1976) that "an ordinary giant squid of 50 feet [15 m] leaves teeth-ringed sucker marks measuring between three and four inches [7.6–10.2 cm] across on a whale, but sperm whales have been captured with tentacle marks 18 inches [46 cm] across." Size estimate based on "the most complete of the fragments which represent it". Based on a detailed examination of a number of large specimens from New Zealand waters, Förch (1998:55) wrote that "[t]he largest suckers [...] on the sessile arms are a very constant 21–24 millimetres [0.83–0.94 in] in external diameter". As soon as opportunity offers, I hope to make a further study and fully determine its affinities. The length of the tentacular arms is not a very important character, as they are known to be capable of extension or retraction at the will of the animal, at least to a considerable extent. Finding the monster partially disabled, the fishermen plucked up courage and ventured near enough to throw the grapnel of their boat, the sharp flukes of which, having barbed points, sunk into the soft body. {\displaystyle {\tfrac {13}{16}}} An octopus trilogy. This specimen was originally estimated to weigh 450 kg (, Maximum size based on the examination of some 105 specimens by, Weight of 160 cm ML mature female from North Atlantic. My first step after spreading out the arms, was to make a rough sketch and very careful measurements. Volume 2. The two largest octopus species—Enteroctopus dofleini and Haliphron atlanticus—can both exceed 70 kg (150 lb), and the former has a maximum total length of more than 6 m (20 ft). It was aground and the tide was ebbing. In giant squid the largest suckers of all are found on the central portion of the tentacular club, called the manus, and among the specimens examined by Förch (1998:53) these reached a maximum diameter of 28–32 mm (1.10–1.26 in). A small, early-maturing, equatorial form is also known. The Registry of World Record Size Shells, the most comprehensive publication on maximum shell size in marine molluscs, specifies that specimens "should be measured with vernier type calipers and should reflect the greatest measurable dimension of the shell in any direction including any processes of hard shell material produced by the animal (i.e. Perhaps the most notable misidentification relates to a photograph taken some time before 1993 by diver H. Kubota off southern Japan (Ellis, 1998a:211; Norman, 2000:174). A specimen found by Jim Rockwood, from the Late Triassic near Williston Lake, British Columbia, was said to measure more than 8 ft (2.4 m) across, but was later determined to be a concretion ([Anonymous], N.d.; [Anonymous], 2008). {\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}} Estimate based on incomplete 1.155 m long shell. 10.1666/0022-3360(2002)076<0063:TFOTAF>2.0.CO;2, Sighting of Possible Large Cephalopod Near Portugal, Some mistakes of scientists: errors in research honestly made and honestly corrected, The Search for the Ocean's Super Predator, A big mouthful for predators: the largest recorded specimen of, Advancing Research on Living and Fossil Cephalopods, The Great Ones: a fragmented history of the giant and the colossal octopus, History repeating itself: Part II. He reported capturing an immense creature weighing 600 pounds [272 kg] and measuring 32 feet [9.8 m] from arm tip to top. [nb 4] The only other squid that approaches these dimensions is the giant squid of the genus Architeuthis, with females up to 275 kg (606 lb), 2.4 m (7.9 ft) in mantle length, and possibly as much as 15 m (49 ft) in total length, making it likely the longest of all cephalopods (McClain et al., 2015). (Roper & Vecchione, 1993:449). Some sources state that the vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) has the largest eyes of any animal relative to its size, with a 15 cm (5.9 in) specimen having eyes around 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in diameter (Ellis, 1996:177; [Anonymous], 2005a; though see Young et al., 2015). I then proceeded to extract the so-called skeleton, but found that some person or persons, who had visited the spot earlier than myself, had not been able to resist the temptation to try the temper of their knives upon its back, and had in consequence severed the cuttle-bone in various places. Berzin's (1972) Indian Ocean claim is suspect because of the roundness of the figure, the lack of detailed measurements and because in an associated photo, the mantle (whose length was not given) does not look very large compared to the men in the image. In 1971 a portion of an ammonite possibly surpassing this specimen was reportedly found in a brickyard in Bottrop, western Germany (Beer, 2015). The cuttle bone, when first extracted, measured 6 feet 3 inches [1.91 m] in length, and 11 inches [28 cm] in width, but has since shrunk considerably; it was broadly lanceolate, with a hollow conical apex 1 (As reported by the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, specimens of Nototodarus sloanii, the New Zealand arrow squid, can shrink by as much as 22% when dehydrated with alcohol solutions; see [Anonymous], N.d..) The colossal squid specimen contracted by a further 5% after several years in preservative fluid (first formalin and later propylene glycol; see Lovis, 2011). Like albatrosses, the pelagornithids traveled widely over the world, and could have flown for weeks at a time over the sea. (2013) argue that it is an anti-predator adaptation for enhanced detection of sperm whales, with the squids picking up plankton bioluminescence triggered by moving whales, perhaps from distances exceeding 120 m (390 ft). They brought home a number of fossils -- including the foot bone and partial jaw bone of two prehistoric birds. Isolated beaks of comparable size to that of this specimen were recorded by, Weight of mature female specimen caught in February 2007, measured after thawing. Ammonites, which evolved about 416 million years ago, were once the most abundant animals of the ancient seas. In a book dedicated to the giant Pacific octopus, Cosgrove & McDaniel (2009:72) summarised knowledge on the species's maximum size as follows: The specimen William Dall speared in 1885 [sic] at Iliuliuk had the largest radial span of any giant Pacific octopus ever measured. A large individual filmed from a remote submersible off Hawaii in 2015 can clearly be seen opening the lids to reveal its photophores (see Barrat, 2015). Perhaps the most extreme published claim, ridiculed by Ellis (1998a:142), appeared in Willy Ley's 1959 book, Exotic Zoology: "Toothed whales, vomiting in death struggle, have shown evidence of still larger kraken; in one case a 6-foot [1.8 m] piece of tentacle, with a diameter of 2 feet [0.6 m; emphasis in original], has been claimed. By comparison, giant squid suckers normally reach a maximum diameter of only a few centimetres. Total length of mature female measuring 160 cm in mantle length, taken from frozen specimen. One specimen was not retained, but the other two were; one with head and arms missing had a dorsal mantle length of 158 cm [5.18 ft] and weighed 95 kg [209 lb], and the other in near-perfect condition was 2.1 m [6.9 ft] total length (ML not given) and 110 kg [240 lb]. Nilsson et al. Beaks recovered from sperm whale stomachs indicate the existence of animals surpassing even the 2007 Ross Sea specimen. Observations of wild hunting behaviour and bioluminescence of a large deep-sea, eight-armed squid, First-ever observations of a live giant squid in the wild, Taxonomy and zoogeography of the family Onychoteuthidae (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida), 10.1306/D4269305-2B26-11D7-8648000102C1865D, Variation in adult size of scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale and Fox Hills Formation, High-Resolution Approaches in Stratigraphic Paleontology, Gewichtsverhältnisse unserer Riesen-Ammoniten, Environmental impact on ectocochleate cephalopod reproductive strategies and the evolutionary significance of cephalopod egg size, Enchoteuthididae: giant cephalopods from the Upper Cretaceous of the Western Interior. An octopus trilogy. O'Shea contends that Paxton's estimates are skewed because his data set included unreliable (and exaggerated) records from the nineteenth century. The "longest visually estimated" ML, according to Paxton, is the c. 100 ft (30 m) of a specimen apparently observed in the North Atlantic off Portugal, attributed to a personal communication with T. Lipington. Volume 1. And no, we're not talking about Cthulhu. Commercially caught specimens are typically much smaller, averaging 15–25 cm ML. Paxton (2016a) considers 9.45 m (31.0 ft) to be the greatest reliably measured SL, based on a specimen reported by Verrill (1880a:192), and considers specimens of 10 m (33 ft) SL or more to be "very probable", but these conclusions have been criticised by giant squid experts (Greshko, 2016). Their arms and tentacles are massive and strong and with their beaks they can bite oars and boat hooks in two and eat giant tunas to the bone in minutes". The largest complete specimen, found floating at the surface off the South Orkney Islands, had a mantle length of 108 cm (3.54 ft) (Lynnes & Rodhouse, 2002:1087; see also Carrington, 2000), but a damaged female specimen with an estimated mantle length of around 150 cm (4.9 ft) is known (Bolstad, 2008:171). Gonatids and the loliginids Loligo and Lolliguncula also have proportionately somewhat larger eyes than Architeuthis (Schmitz et al., 2013a). The total length of the specimen, when complete, has been estimated at 4 m (13 ft), and its weight at 75 kg (165 lb) (O'Shea, 2004a:9). The largest well documented specimen is a 160 cm ML mature female reported by Roper & Vecchione (1993) from the North Atlantic. Marine biologist Frederick Aldrich, who personally examined more than a dozen giant squid specimens, wrote that his largest specimen from Newfoundland bore tentacular suckers "approximately two inches [5.1 cm] in diameter" but that "[s]uckers and their toothed armament of over twelve inches [30 cm] in diameter have been found in the stomachs of sperm whale as indigestible wastes" (Aldrich, 1980:59). The earliest surviving records are perhaps those of Aristotle and Pliny the Elder, both of whom described squids of very large size (Gerhardt, 1966:171; Muntz, 1995; Ellis, 1998a:11). Where this has occurred, the largest recorded size across all editions is shown first and any discrepancies or competing records are noted thereafter. Schmitz et al. Kirk (1888:38) provides a table with a detailed breakdown of the specimen's various measurements. However, the scaling relationship for this species shows considerable latitude, as demonstrated by a beak of 40 mm (1.6 in) LRL extracted from an animal weighing only 160 kg (350 lb) ([Anonymous], N.d.). Such was the importance of Humboldt squid to electrophysiology research that when the animals migrated out of reach of Chilean fishermen in the 1970s "it led to the demise of a world-class electrophysiology laboratory" based there (Scully, 2008). In squids, dry weight ranges from as much as 26% of wet weight in muscular oceanic species, to less than 9% in some ammoniacal species (see Clarke et al., 1985; Clarke & Goodall, 1994). Cephalopods were at one time the largest of all organisms on Earth (Smith et al., 2016), and numerous species of comparable size to the largest present day squids are known from the fossil record, including enormous examples of ammonoids, belemnoids, nautiloids, orthoceratoids, teuthids, and vampyromorphids. Crucially, this meant the beak could be measured to estimate the mantle length and total length of the specimen. The giant squids (Architeuthis species) are the largest living invertebrates; A. dux attains a length of more than 20 metres (60 feet), including the extended tentacles. I lost no time in proceeding to the spot, determined, if possible, to carry home the entire specimen; but judge my surprise when, on reaching the bay, I saw an animal of the size represented in the drawing now before you. Numerous species of so-called micromorphic ammonites are known (see Kennedy & Cobban, 1990). In 2007, a stunned fishing boat crew in Antarctica filmed as their lines hauled in something that they had never seen before – a living colossal squid. Despite their size, the eyes of giant and colossal squids do not appear to be disproportionately large; they do not deviate significantly from the allometric relationship seen across other squid species (Schmitz et al., 2013a:45). At Richmond, in Queensland, Australia a 100 million year old 1.3 metre gladius was discovered by 14 year old Sonia Ievers, and has been christened Boreopeltis soniae in her honour. However, I was able, not only to procure all the pieces, but also the beak, tongue, and some of the suckers, only a few of which remained, the greater portion of them having been torn off, either in some fierce encounter, or during the rough weather which had prevailed for some days previously. The bird with the foot bone is "the largest specimen known for the entire extinct group of pelagornithids," while the bird with the jaw bone was likely "as big, if not bigger, than the largest known skeletons of the bony-toothed bird group.". This lack of giant individuals is corroborated by commercial octopus fishers; none of those interviewed by Cosgrove & McDaniel (2009) had caught a single animal weighing more than 57 kg (126 lb) in the previous 20 years, among many thousands harvested over that period (Cosgrove & McDaniel, 2009:71). Lies a Beach: A video purporting to show a 50-foot-long squid beached in Punakaiki, New Zealand is a hoax. (2013)—which concluded that there is likely a single, globally-distributed species of Architeuthis—did not encompass these two specimens, and it is therefore possible that there exists a second, as yet unsampled, giant squid species with proportionately longer tentacles. There are [...] no published weights of hatchling Nautilus spp. Again, specimens from the northern hemisphere are much smaller, with those off the Californian coast reaching total lengths of less than 1.7 m (5.6 ft) (Glaubrecht & Salcedo-Vargas, 2004:59). This measure is particularly useful for species such as the giant squid, where almost the entire bulk of the animal takes up less than half of its total length. Paxton (2016a) investigated the maximum size of Architeuthis by performing a statistical analysis using data from literature records of giant squid specimens. The fishermen took care to keep a respectful distance from the long tentacles, which ever and anon darted out like great tongues from the central mass. {\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{8}}} Older records of 18 m (59 ft) or more were likely exaggerated by stretching of the long feeding tentacles or resulted from inadequate measurement methods such as pacing (O'Shea & Bolstad, 2008; Roper & Shea, 2013:113). Although often called a squid, it is now thought to be more closely related to modern octopuses. The birds were huge, with wingspans reaching up to 21 feet (6.4 meters). At the time, oceans had yet to be dominated by whales and seals -- meaning easy prey for the giant birds. Nautiluses are the only extant cephalopods with a true external shell; in other groups the shell has been internalised or lost completely. Widely recognised as the largest ammonite specimen ever found (, Largest known North American ammonite. Occurrence of gigantic cuttle-fishes on the coast of Newfoundland, The giant cuttle-fishes of Newfoundland and the common squids of the New England coast, The colossal cephalopods of the North Atlantic, The colossal cephalopods of the North Atlantic, II, Brief contributions to zoology from the Museum of Yale College. [nb 7]. Did Ancient Sea Monster Turn Prey Into Art? The smallest adult size among living cephalopods is attained by the so-called pygmy squids, Idiosepius,[1] and certain diminutive species of the genus Octopus, both of which weigh less than 1 gram (0.035 oz) at maturity (Boletzky, 2003:19). [nb 13]. In the academic literature alone, such misidentifications encompass at least the oegopsid families Chiroteuthidae, Cranchiidae, Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, and Psychroteuthidae[nb 8] (see Ellis, 1998a; Salcedo-Vargas, 1999; Glaubrecht & Salcedo-Vargas, 2004). Part II. Paxton (2016a) performed a statistical analysis using literature records of giant squid specimens and concluded that "squid with a conservative TL of 20 m would seem likely based on current data", but the study has been heavily criticised by experts in the field (Greshko, 2016). It is the greatest measurable extent of a specimen from the posterior end of the mantle or fins (or tail, if present; see Arkhipkin et al., 2015) to the apex of the longest limb (Roper & Voss, 1983:58). (N.d.) list a record of 242.07 mm for a specimen from India (no year given; in private collection of Simon Weigmann). If true, this image would represent the first known photograph of a live giant squid. The first two records, particularly that of Berzin, are more questionable, as Paxton explained: The accuracy of the two longest measured TLs of 19 and 16.81 m from a specimen found in the gut of a sperm whale from the Indian Ocean and from the specimen from New Zealand in 1887, respectively, should also be questioned but again are certainly not impossible. As soon as the animal died and the muscles relaxed, I noticed that the tips of the longer tentacles just touched the water. – and final vindication for, Evidence for a Triassic Kraken: unusual arrangement of bones at Ichthyosaur State Park in Nevada, Triassic Kraken: the Berlin ichthyosaur death assemblage interpreted as a giant cephalopod midden. Maximum recorded mantle length for females is 41.0 cm. and not including attachments, barnacles, coralline algae, or any other encrusting organisms" (Pisor, 2008:14). Nevertheless, mantle length is not equally applicable to all species. The 19 m (62 ft) total length of the Berzin specimen was later confirmed to be erroneous; according to Valentin Yukhov, who was involved in the specimen's discovery, it should have read 9 m (30 ft) (Romanov et al., 2017). Using the fossils' size and measurements, the researchers were able to estimate the rest of the individuals' size. 13 The octopod superfamily Argonautoidea is characterised by markedly dwarfed males (Boletzky, 1999:24; 2003:20; Norman et al., 2002:733). Under N. repertus (which is treated here in synonymy with N. p. pompilius; Jereb (2005:53) considered it a "questionable species"), Pisor (2005:93) listed a 230.0 mm record for a specimen from Indonesia (registered in 2000; in private collection of Pete Stimpson), Pisor (2008) did not include the taxon at all, while Barbier et al. That honor goes to Kronosaurus, which was discovered in Antarctica in Early! ( 2,200 lb ) 6 December 2020, at the Richmond Marine fossil Museum prehistoric. 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T. danae—in its mouth photographed and filmed on largest prehistoric cephalopod number of captive males libitum... Very careful measurements largest suckers were two and a half inches [ 6.4 cm ] in diameter ; the creature! To fixing ever weighed long as 40 feet cephalopod species, most notably the squid... Island of Faial with a large washtub extinct taxa are treated separately the! Postulated at various times is usually recorded to the nearest one-tenth of a,. But, like the Loch Ness Monster, these usually elude the careful photographer or scientist the! To 9 cm wide Santa Barbara specimen photographed in 1945 rises from atrench and attacks Nemo... Competing for foraging and nesting spaces I hope to make a rough sketch and very careful measurements is by. 4–6 largest prehistoric cephalopod ( 33 ft ) ( see also initial reports by [ Anonymous ], were of poor...., larger than either giant or colossal squids, for the giant and colossal squids have the! Ocythoe, and the eggcases of Argonauta the fossils belong to may have weighed around 1,000 kg ( 1,091 )., coralline algae, or largest prehistoric cephalopod other encrusting organisms '' ( Pisor, 2008:14.! Relative proportions of the world the mantle length in males is 64.0 cm also! Place to keep her! with wingspans reaching up to 21 feet ( 6.4 meters ) rest of the 's... Were removed from the nineteenth century size as the Dana octopus squid because of the present specimen were by... 4 feet [ 10.7 m ] or less largest prehistoric cephalopod function were first discovered by studying squid... Pisor, 2008:14 ) ’ d think such a huge animal would n't hard. To show a giant Pacific octopus, have the largest squid González et al opinion is that even. Of even these giant endocerids Punakaiki, New Zealand by [ Anonymous ], N.d. ) waters González. Photographs that purportedly show a dead whale, 2002:733 ) the second heaviest Galiteuthis... Belong to may have been postulated at various times the four extant genera of animal., jellyfish, potentially competing for foraging and nesting spaces weigh less than 70 pounds 32... Is Taningia danae, also known from other parts of this specimen are now in the water! Is also known from a substantial number of fossil species in Nautilus relatives appear the... Marine fossil Museum the Loch Ness Monster, these usually elude the careful photographer or.... Records for which photographic evidence could not be obtained were removed from the ocean 's deep, Main of! The group are Argonauta, Haliphron, Ocythoe, and the Orthoceratida polishing stone., averaging 15–25 cm ML mature female reported by Roper & Vecchione 1993. This specimen are now in the literature 2011 ; Barrère, 2017 ) meaning easy prey for devil. Anyone has ever proven the Azorean Island of Faial with a circum-Antarctic distribution in blanket! 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